National Socialist Policies in the 3rd Reich

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  1. National Socialist Policies in the 3rd Reich
  4. During the first twelve months of his administration, unemployment declined by nearly 2.3 million. In 1934, 2,973,544 persons were still out of work, but by November 1935, 1,750,000 more Germans had found full time jobs. September 1936 mass unemplyment has been overcome. Aamong other civilized nations, of the 20 million people out of work in 1932, only two million had returned to the work force over the previous four years (The statistics did not include the USSR, since no figures were available).
  7. An estimated four to six million houses required modernization. A large percentage lacked electricity, hook-up to municipal water lines, or facilities for bath and shower. "At present around 300,000 children annually are never born, just because the miserable living conditions rob parents of the heart to bring them into the world."
  8. Home owners received a grant covering 20 percent of the cost of each project, including repairs and additions.
  9. The government provided borrowers coupons to reimburse them for the interest on the loans.
  11. FAMILY
  12. Men who had been out of work the longest or who were fathers of large families received preference in hiring. None were allowed to work more than 40 hours per week.
  13. The Labor Procurement Law provided newlyweds loans of RM 1,000 at one percent monthly interest. The loans came in the form of coupons to buy furniture, household appliances and clothing.
  14. For each child born to a couple, the government reduced the loan by 25 percent and deferred payments on the balance for one year. For larger families, upon birth of the fourth child, the state forgave the loan. It financed the program by imposing surtaxes on single men and women. By June 1936, the government approved 750,000 marriage loans.
  15. The state imposed no property tax on young couples purchasing small single family homes.
  18. From 1934 to 1937, the number of women in the work force increased from 4.5 million to 5.7 million. Despite programs to encourage women to return to traditional family roles, the government did not restrict those choosing a career. They were equally eligible for tax incentives offered for starting small businesses.
  21. With 17 million members, the Reichsnährstand's principle objectives were to curtail the gradual dying-out of farms in Germany, and prevent migration of rural folk to concentrated population centers or industry. Controlling the market value of foodstuffs, the organization gradually raised the purchase price of groceries by over ten percent by 1938. This measure was not popular among the public, but greatly assisted planters.
  22. The Reichsnährstand not only arranged for a substantial reduction in property taxes for farms, butwiped the slate clean on indebtedness. This gave heavily mortgaged farm owners a fresh start.
  23. Another organization, the Landhilfe (Rural Assistance), recruited approximately 120,000 unemployed young people to help work farms. The government financed their salaries, training and housing. It also arranged for temporary employment on farms for school graduates and students on summer break. The Landhilfe permitted foreigners living in Germany, primarily Poles, to enter the program.
  24. The government provided interest-free loans and grants for the purchase of farm implements along with special marriage loans for newlyweds. The debts were to be forgiven after the family had worked the farm ten years.
  27. Regulation of salaries and managerial privileges. Government arranged (for the first time) for blue-collar workers to have compensation when missing work due to important family measures, plus a subsidy in case of illness.
  28. The Law for Regulation of Wages introduced guidelines to guarantee a decent standard of living for everyone who worked hard, irrespective of their occupation. The regulation further called for an adjustment in salary for employees with unavoidable financial hardships, in order to guarantee their standard of living. Even time lost from work due to weather conditions became a factor. It also required that every citizen receive pay for overtime.
  29. They included paid holidays for labor. The wage law established a minimum monthly income per person, sufficient to guarantee a decent living standard. It affected 96 percent of all salaries nationwide.
  30. The record of court proceedings for 1939 demonstrates that the labor law primarily safeguarded the well-being of employees rather than their overseers. During that year, the courts conducted 14 hearings against workers and 153 against plant managers, assistant managers and supervisors. In seven cases, the directors lost their jobs.
  33. Few Germans could afford to travel prior to Hitler’s chancellorship. The KdF began sponsoring low-cost excursions the following year, that were affordable for lower income families. Package deals covered the cost of transportation, lodging, meals and tours. Options included outings to swimming or mountain resorts, health retreats, popular attractions in cities and provinces, hiking and camping trips. In 1934, 2,120,751 people took short vacation tours. The number grew annually, with 7,080,934 participating in 1938. KdF “Wanderings" -- backpacking excursions in scenic areas— drew 60,000 the first year. In 1938 there were 1,223,362 Germans on the trails.
  34. These activities were only possible because Hitler, upon founding the “Strength through Joy” agency in November 1933, ordered all German businesses and industry to grant sufficient paid time off for employees. Prior to that year, nearly a third of the country’s labor force had no union contract and hence worked without vacations. In 1931, just 30 percent of laborers with wage agreements received four to six days off per year. The majority, 61 percent, received three days." 99 The National Socialist government required that all working people be guaranteed a minimum of six days off after six months' tenure with a company. As seniority increased, the employee was to earn twelve paid vacation days per annum. The state extended the same benefits to Germany’s roughly half a million Heimarbeiter, people holding small contracts with industry who manufactured components at home.
  35. Also among the possible vacations for blue-collar workers were cruises abroad, to England, Norway or Madeira, something unheard of at the time. During 1935, over 138,000 Germans took KdF cruises.
  37. SPORTS
  38. The sports office of the DAF sponsored labor’s involvement in other “exclusive” activities such as tennis, skiing, horseback riding and sailing. It offered inexpensive courses in these sports and built new facilities. In 1934 alone, 470,928 Germans took part in DAF sports courses. In 1938, the number had swollen to 22,474,906.
  41. Also included culture for blue-collar workers. 70 music schools offered basic instruction in playing musical instruments for members of working class families.
  42. The KdF arranged theater productions and classical concerts for labor throughout the country. The 1938 Bayreuth Festspiel, the summer season of Richard Wagner operas, gave performances of Tristan und Isolde and Parsifal for laborers and their families. The KdF also established travelling theaters and concert tours to visit rural towns in Germany where cultural events seldom took place.
  45. Reich's Career Competition was launched in 1934. Half a million boys and girls displayed their skills in trades and crafts. The best-scoring contestants received financial grants to pursue higher learning.The number of children taking part grew annually. In 1938, 949,120 girls and 1,537,373 boys competed. The DAF awarded RM 527,000 in scholarships that year.
  48. The opportunity for public servants to favor certain private commercial interests in exchange for gratuities was particularly troublesome to Hitler.
  49. He enacted laws making it illegal for public servants to possess stock portfolios or to serve as consultants to private corporations. The law also affected members of the armed forces and the National Socialist party in positions of procurement.
  50. It was a violation for anyone leaving public sector to accept a job with a private concern that he had previously contracted with in an official capacity.
  51. Even as private citizens, former civil servants were forbidden by Hitler from investing their personal wealth in stock shares

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